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Embracing the cyclical nature of the mining sector



Set out below is a glossary of selected technical terms.

“Airborne Magnetic Survey”a type of geophysical survey carried out using a magnetometer, aboard or towed behind an aircraft
“Alumina”aluminium oxide (Al2O3) which is used to produce primary aluminium
“Anomaly” or “anomalies”mineralisation distinguished by geological, geophysical or geochemical means, which is different from the general surroundings and is of potential economic value
“Amsl”Above mean sea level
“ANS”Arabian-Nubian Shield
“Archaean”an early part of geological time dating from <4,000 to 2,500 million years ago
“Artisanal”local/indigenous people conducting mining with rudimentary equipment
“Assay” or “Assay results”the analysis of minerals, rocks and mine products to determine and quantify their constituent parts
“BIF”Banded iron ore formation
“BLEG”bulk leach extractable gold
“BRGM”Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres
“°C”degrees Centigrade
“Channel Sampling (programme)”a technique for generating representative sampling across the face of a rock body or vein system
“CIT”Corporate income tax
“DEM”Digital Elevation Models
“Deposit”a naturally occurring accumulation of minerals that may be considered economically valuable
“DGPS”Differential Global Positioning System
“Digital Elevation Model (DEM)”a topographic surface often determined from satellite data
“Dykes”a sub-vertical tabular igneous intrusion which cuts across the bedding or other planar structures in the country rock
“EAO”East African Orogen
“EIA”Environmental Impact Assessment
“EL”Exploration licence
“Gibbsite”a mineral, hydrated aluminium oxide (Al(OH)3) which is an important constituent of bauxite ore
“Grade(s)”the quantity of ore or metal in a specified quantity of rock
“Ground Magnetic Survey”a type of geophysical survey carried out using a magnetometer, undertaken at ground level
“g/t”grams per tonne
“Haematite”the mineral form of iron (III) oxide, with chemical formula Fe2O3
“HEP”Hydroelectric Power
“IDW”Inverse distance weighting
“Inferred Mineral Resource”that part of a Mineral Resource for which tonnage, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a low level of confidence. It is inferred from geological evidence and assumed but not verified geological and/or grade continuity. It is based on information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes which may be limited or of uncertain quality and reliability
“IRGM”Institute for Geological and Mining Research
“km2square kilometre
“koz”thousand troy ounces
“kt”thousand tonnes
“Laterite”residual deposit formed under tropical conditions. Essentially hydrated Iron oxides
“Leach”removal of material by the action of percolating liquid, especially rainwater
“m2square metre
“m3cubic metre
“Manto style mineralisation” a flat-lying, bedded ore deposit, usually Cu or Pb/Zn/Ag
“masl”metres above sea level
“Mineralised” or “Mineralisation”The process by which minerals are introduced into a rock. More generally, a term applied to accumulations of economic or related minerals in quantities ranging from weakly anomalous to economically recoverable
“MINMIDT”Ministry of Industry, Mines and Technological Development
“MoMPNG”Ministry of Mines, Petroleum and Natural Gas
“mm2square millimetre
“Moz”million troy ounces
“MRE”Mineral Resource Estimate
“Mt”million tonnes
“Outcrop”a visible exposure of rock that is in-situ and has no covering of soil or vegetation
“oz”troy ounce
“Prospect”a mineral property, the value of which has not been fully determined by exploration
“Proterozoic”the later of the two major subdivisions of the Precambrian (compare with Archaean) between 2,500 and 590Ma
“QA/QC”Quality Assurance/Quality Control
“RC”rotary circulation drilling
“Reconnaissance map”plotted results of a general examination or survey of the main features, or certain specifications, of a region, usually low order of accuracy and usually as a preliminary to more detailed surveys, examinations, or mapping
“Remote sensing analysis”remote sensing refers to technologies for gathering visual information or other data about a site from the air or from space
“Rock chip sample”small pieces of rock taken from across a geologic outcrop, often for assay
“SAF”South Atlas Fault
“Sampling programme”a statistical method of obtaining representative data or observations from a group (lot, batch, population, or universe)
“Shear zone”zone in which rocks have been deformed by lateral movement along parallel planes
“Silicified”referring to rocks in which a significant proportion of the original constituent minerals have been replaced by silica
“SNI”Société Nationale d’Investissement
“Supergene”processes or enrichment that occur relatively near the surface and include chemical weathering and oxidation of primary minerals
“t”tonne (metric ton)
“Terrane”Tectonostratigraphic terrane, which is a fragment of crustal material formed on, or broken off from, one tectonic plate and accreted or “sutured” to crust lying on another plate
“Veins”a fracture which has been filled by minerals which have crystallised from mineralised fluids
“Volcaniclastic”fragmental rocks containing volcanic material in any proportion without regard to origin
“X-ray diffraction”a process which relies on the dual wave/particle nature of X-rays to obtain information about the structure of crystalline materials
“X-ray fluorescence (XRF)”the emission of characteristic “secondary” (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays. The phenomenon is widely used for elemental analysis and chemical analysis
“XRD”x-ray diffraction
“XRF”x-ray fluorescence

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